Exam Study Guides- Henslin Text
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY- Henslin Text "Essentials of Sociology - A down to earth approach", 7th Edition
You should have a general understanding of entire chapters, and you should concentrate on the following key terms, concepts, and key people for each chapter.
Chapter 1 - The sociological perspective
- Auguste Comte , Herbert Spencer , Emile Durkheim , Max Weber , Karl Marx, Harriet Martineau, Jane Addams, W.E.B. DuBois, C.Wright Mills
applied sociology, basic (pure) sociology, closed-ended questions, conflict theory, control group, dependent variables, dysfunction ( latent dysfunction) ( pg.16-17), experiment, experimental group, functionalism ( functional analysis) (structural Functionalism), hypothesis, independent variables, latent function, manifest function, macro-level analysis, micro-level analysis, open-ended questions, participant observation ( fieldwork), population, positivism, random sample, reliability, replication, research method ( research design), sample, science, society, Social Darwinism ( pg.6), social integration, social location, sociology, sociological perspective, survey, symbolic interactionism, theory, unobtrusive measures, variable, validity, value free
CHAPTER 1 - REVIEW CONCEPTS
1. Who is the father and founder of sociology ?
2. Who is associated with " Social Darwinism" ?
3. What major theory is Karl Marx associated with ?
4. What are the three major theories ( sociological perspectives) used in sociology ?
5. In conducting experiments, researchers use two groups. What are those groups called ?
6. What is the difference between "applied sociology" and "basic sociology" ?
7. What is the difference between “ manifest” and “latent” functions ? What is a “dysfunction” or “ latent dysfunction” ?
8. On surveys, what is the difference between open-ended and closed-ended questions?
9. What are the different research methods used in scientific sociology ?
Chapter 2 - Culture
counterculture, cultural diffusion, cultural lag, cultural leveling, cultural relativism, culture, culture shock, ethnocentrism, folkways, gestures, ideal culture, language, material culture, mores, negative sanction, new technology, non-material culture (symbolic culture), norms, pluralistic society, positive sanctions, real culture, sanction, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, subculture, symbol, taboo, technology, values
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW CONCEPTS
1. What is the difference between material and non-material culture?
2. What is the difference between ethnocentrism and cultural relativism ?
3. Define “ Ideal culture” and “ Real culture”.
4. What is the difference between “folkways” and “ mores” ?
5. What is a counterculture ?
6. Define culture shock ?
7. What is a “ cultural lag” ?
8. What are the different components of culture?
Chapter 3 - Socialization
- Charles Horton Cooley, Sigmund Freud, Harry & Margaret Harlow, George Herbert Mead
agents of socialization, anticipatory socialization, degradation ceremony, ego, id, life course, looking-glass self, mass media, nature vs. nurture ( pg. 60), peer group, resocialization, self, significant other, social environment, socialization, superego, taking the role of the other ( role playing) , total institution
CHAPTER 3 REVIEW CONCEPTS
1. Summarize the Nature vs. Nurture debate as it applies to human behavior.
2. Summarize Cooley’s “ looking-glass self “ model.
3. What did Mead mean by the term “ significant other”?
4. What are Freud’s three parts of the personality called ?
5. Define the term “socialization” and " resocialization"
6. What is a peer group?
7. What are agents of socialization ? Name the most important ones.
8. What is a total institution ?
9. How does socialization occur through the life course ? How do agents of socialization affect us during the different stages of life?
Chapter 4 - Social Interaction & Social Structure
achieved & ascribed statuses, background assumptions, backstage behavior ( pg. 100), dramaturgy, ethnomethodology, face-saving behavior, frontstage behavior ( pg. 100), Gemeinschaft & Gesellschaft, impression management, macro & micro sociology ( macro & micro level of analysis), master status, role, role conflict, role strain, social class, social interaction, social institution, social construction of reality, social structure, society, status, status inconsistency, status set, status symbols, Thomas Theorem
CHAPTER 4 REVIEW CONCEPTS
1. What is the “ Thomas Theorem” ?
2. Who is associated with “ dramaturgy” and “ impression
3. What are statuses and roles ?
4. What is the difference between achieved and ascribed
5. What is a master status?
6. What is the difference between role conflict and role strain?
7. What is “ gemeinschaft” and “ gesellschaft” ? Give examples.
8. Understand the differences between the two levels of sociological analysis ( macro & micro sociology)
9. Understand the impact of social interaction, and social structure
Chapter 5 - Social Groups
aggregate , alienation, authoritarian leader, bureaucracy, category, clique, coalition, corporate culture, democratic leader, dyad, electronic community, expressive leader, group, group dynamics, groupthink, in-group instrumental leader, laissez-faire leader, leader, leadership styles, networking, out-group, primary group, reference group, secondary groups, small group, social network, triad, voluntary association
CHAPTER 5 REVIEW CONCEPTS
1. What are “ primary” and “ secondary” groups?
2. What is an “electronic community”?
3. What are the two types of leaders talked about in the textbook?
4. What are the three basic leadership styles?
5. What is the difference between an “ aggregate” and “ social group” ?
6. What is “groupthink” ?
7. What are bureaucracies ? What are their essential features ?
8. Understand the basic elements of group dynamics ; group size, group stability and leadership.
Chapter 6 - Deviance
capitalist class, capital punishment ( death penalty), control theory, corporate crime, crime, criminal justice system, cultural goals, deviance, differential association, genetic predisposition, hate crime, labeling theory, medicalization of deviance, negative sanctions, personality disorders, positive sanctions, recidivism rate, stigma, social control, social order, street crime, techniques of neutralization, three-strikes law (pg. 155), white-collar crime, working class
CHAPTER 6 REVIEW CONCEPTS
1. What is the difference between “ deviance” and “ crime” ?
2. What is the functional perspective on deviance
3. What does “ labeling theory” say ?
4. In Control Theory, what are the “two control systems ”, that work against our tendencies to deviate ?
5. What is meant by the phrase “ Crime in the suites, not in the streets” ?
6. What is a “ hate crime” ?
7. What is differential association ?
8. What are the different techniques of neutralization ?
9. What are the different explanations for deviant and criminal behavior ? ( biological, social, medical, etc.)
Chapters 7 & 8 - Stratification & Social CLass
Karl Marx, Max Weber, C. Wright Mills
capitalist class ( chp. 6, pg. 153), caste system, class system, colonialism, culture of poverty, globalization of capitalism, Karl Marx's terms ( bourgeoisie, proletariat, class consciousness, false consciousness), marginal working class ( chp. 6, pg. 153), meritocracy, means of production, multinational corporations, neocolonialism, slavery, social class, social mobility, social stratification, structural mobility, downward social mobility, exchange mobility, feminization of poverty, Horatio Alger myth, intergenerational mobility, income, poverty line, power, prestige, power elite, status consistency, status inconsistency, structural mobility, upward social mobility, underclass, wealth , working class ( chp. 6, pg. 153), working poor ( pg. 205)
CHAPTERS 7 & 8 REVIEW CONCEPTS
1. Define “ social stratification”.
2. What are the three major systems of social stratification
talked about in your textbook ?
3. Describe the differences between Marx & Weber in regards to
what determines social class?
4. Explain the functional perspective on social stratification?
5. What is “ social mobility” ? Name the different types.
6. Explain what C. Wright Mills meant by the term “ power elite”.
7. What is the “ Horatio Alger Myth” ?
8. What is colonialism, neo-colonialism, multinational corporations?
9. How are people affected by social class ? What are the consequences of social class to your life experiences ?
10. Who are the poor in the United States ? How do you measure poverty ? What impact does it have on your life ?
Chapter 9 - Racial Inequality
affirmative action (pg. 251), assimilation (forced assimilation & permissible assimilation pg. 234), discrimination, dominant group, ethnic cleansing, ethnic & ethnicity, ethnic work, genocide, individual & institutional discrimination, internal colonialism, melting pot, minority group, multiculturalism ( pluralism), population transfer ( indirect & direct transfer pg. 233), prejudice, racism, race, scapegoat, segregation, selective perception, WASP, white ethnics.
CHAPTER 9 REVIEW CONCEPTS
1. What is the difference between “ prejudice” and
“ discrimination” ?
2. What is the distinction between “ prejudice /discrimination” and “racism” ?
3. List the global patterns of intergroup relations in regards to racial-ethnic relations. ( major patterns of dominant group and minority relations).
4. What is a “scapegoat” ?
5. Explain the distinctions between the categories “ race / racial group” and “ ethnicity / ethnic group” ?
6. How do sociologists define “ minority groups” ?
7. Describe the analogies of “ melting pot” versus “ tossed salad” in regards to ethnicity and ethnic identity.
8. What is affirmative action ?
9. How have racial and ethnic minorities been treated in this country historically, and what is the present situation ?
Chapter 10 - Gender Inequality & Inequality of Aging
ageism, age cohort, activity theory, continuity theory, dependency ratio ( social security), disengagement theory, feminism, gender , gender pay gap ( pg. 268), gender stratification, gender tracking ( in education, pg. 265), glass ceiling & glass escalator ( pg. 271-272), graying of America, life expectancy, life span, patriarchy, quiet revolution, sex, sexual harassment
CHAPTER 10 REVIEW CONCEPTS
1. Sociologically speaking, what is the difference between “ sex traits” and “gender traits” ?
2. What is ageism ?
3. In reference to aging, what are the main concepts of the following theories : continuity theory, activity theory, disengagement theory ?
4. What is the difference between “ life expectancy” and
“ life span” ?
5. What is “ gender stratification” ?
6. What does “ Graying of America” refer to ?
7. In what ways do women experience minority status in the United States, and how is gender inequality expressed in our social institutions ?
8. What are glass ceilings and glass escalators ?
Chapter 11 - Political & Economic Institutions
anarchy, authority, capitalism , checks & balances ( U.S. Govt.), charismatic authority, citizenship, convergence theory, coercion, conspicuous consumption, corporation, corporate capitalism, dehumanization, democracy, democratic socialism ( welfare socialism), dictatorship, direct democracy, downsizing ( pg. 309), economy, laissez-faire capitalism, lobbyists, market forces, market restraints, monarchy, multinational corporations, oligarchy, pluralism ( power diffusion), political action committees ( PAC's), power elite, power, representative democracy, rational-legal authority, socialism, special-interest groups, state, subsistence economy, totalitarianism, terrorism ( suicide terrorism), traditional authority, universal citizenship, voter apathy, war, welfare ( state) capitalism.
CHAPTER 11 REVIEW CONCEPTS
1. What is the difference between a “ direct democracy”and
“ representative democracy “ ?
2. What is a “ dictatorship” and what is a “monarchy”, an
3. What is totalitarianism ?
4. Who rules in the United States ? What are the arguments for
“ pluralism” and the “ power elite ” ?
5. How does the book define “ terrorism” ?
6. What are the basic elements and differences of “ capitalism” and
“ socialism” ?
7. Understand Weber's definitions of power, authority and
coercion. What are his three types of authority ?
8. Who rules in the U.S. political system ? What is the impact of
special interest groups, PAC's, lobbyists, etc.
9. What is corporate capitalism, welfare capitalism, democratic
socialism, Laissez-faire capitalism, etc.
Chapter 12 - Family
bilateral system of descent, blended family, cohabitation, egalitarian, empty nest, endogamy, exogamy, extended family, family, family of orientation , family of procreation, fictive kin ( pg. 334), homogamy, household, incest taboo, machismo, marriage, matriarchy, matrilineal & patrilineal systems of descent, patriarchy, not so empty nest ( pg. 334), nuclear family, polygyny, polyandry, romantic love, sandwich generation (pg. 342), second shift & second shift strategies ( pg. 328) , serial fatherhood, skipped generation families ( pg. 342), system of descent
CHAPTER 12 REVIEW CONCEPTS
1. What is the difference between a “family” and a “ household” ?
2. What is a “ family of orientation” and “family of procreation” ?
3.What is “ endogamy ” and “ exogamy” ?
4. Define the terms “ blended family”, “ extended family”, and“nuclear
5. What is a system of descent ? What are “ patrilineal” ,
“matrilineal”, and “bilateral” systems of descent?
6. What is the “ empty nest” and “not so empty nest” ?
7. What is “ polygyny” and “ polyandry” ?
8. What is the second shift and second shift strategies to avoid
working the second shift ?
9. What is fictive kin ?
10. What are the general trends in the U.S. today as far as marriage,
divorce, and remarriage?
Chapter 13 - Education Institutions & Religious Institutions
Karl Marx ( conflict in religion) & Emile Durkheim ( function of religion)
born again, charisma, charismatic leader, church, credential society, cult, cultural transmission ( education), ecclesia ( state religion), electronic church ( pg. 377), functional illiteracy, fundamentalist Christian churches ( pg. 377), gatekeeping, grade inflation, hidden curriculum, home schooling ( pg. 359), mainstreaming, profane, Protestant ethic, religion, religious experience, rituals, sacred, sect, spirit of capitalism, social promotion, social placement, tracking ( in education)
CHAPTER 13 REVIEW CONCEPTS
1. Using a functionalist perspective, list some of the social benefitsof
2. From the conflict perspective, list some of the issues that conflict
theorists are concerned about in our educational institutions.
3. What is meant by the terms “ grade inflation” and “ social
4. List some of the functions of religion and some of the dysfunctions
of religion ?
5.Understand the differences between different types of religious
groups or organizations : cults, sects, mainstream churches, and an
6. How does Durkheim distinguish between sacred and profane
7. What is a “ credential society” ?
8. How do Durkheim and Marx differ in their views of religion ?
9. What are some general trends in U.S. religious practices ? How
important is religion in the U.S ; what is the association between
religion and other social characteristics like socialclass,race,ethnicity,
Chapter14 - Population & Urbanization
alienation, basic demographic equation, city, community, crude birth rate, crude death rate, deindustrialization, demography, demographic variables, disinvestment, edge city, female infanticide ( pg. 395), fertility rate, growth rate, gentrification, Malthus theorem, megacity, net migration rate, New Malthusians & Anti-Malthusians ( pg. 384-385) , norm of non-involvement, (diffusion of responsibility pg. 408), population shrinkage, redlining, suburbs (suburbanization pg. 403,408), urban renewal, urbanization, zero population growth
CHAPTER 14 REVIEW CONCEPTS
1. What is the Malthus theorem, and what is the difference in beliefs
between New Malthusians and Anti-Malthusians ?
2. What is demography ? What are the three demographicvariables ?
3. What is gentrification ?
4. What is the “ norm of non-involvement” and “ diffusion of
responsibility” as it relates to the urban setting ?
5. What is “population shrinkage” and “ zero population growth” ?
6. What are the definitions for “ urbanization” and suburbanization” ?
7. What is a city, a suburb, a community, and an edge city ?
Chapter 15 - Social Change
- William Ogburn ( social change)
acid rain, corporate welfare, cultural lag, diffusion, discovery, distance learning ( pg. 423), ecosabotage, environmental sociology, environmental injustice, G-8 ( geopolitics pg. 418), global warming, greenhouse effect, green parties ( pg. 433), invention, modernization, postmodern society ( post-industrial society), propaganda, public opinion, resource mobilization (theory), social change, social movement, social movement organization, sustainable environment, technology ( pg. 421)
CHAPTER 15 REVIEW CONCEPTS
1. Understand Ogburn’s terms “ Invention”, “discovery”, “diffusion” and “cultural lag”
2.What is a social movement ?
3. What is “ propaganda” and “ public opinion” ?
4.Explain “ resource mobilization theory” and how it pertains to social movements.
5. Understand the relationship between industrialization and environmental degradation like the greenhouse effect, global warming, acid rain, etc.
6. What is “ corporate welfare” ?
7. What is environmental sociology ? Ecosabotage ? environmental injustice ?