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Help with vocabulary used by Eliade in The Sacred and Profane, go to:

HUMI 9-01 and 9-02
Intro to Religion Lecture Note Extras:
Humi 9

Humi 18-01

Native American, Hindu,Buddhist

Sacred Ground Video
: Originated from the subterranean pithouse where it was believed that Native Americans ascended from inside the earth. The Kiva was moved to a central location as a place to commune with the spirits and remind them of their origin inside the earth.
Volcanic Peaks of Pacific Northwest: Native Americans believed that these mountains not only housed the spirits but were the spirits. These Great Spirit Mountains could be reached and were the eternal symbol of communication with the divine.
Valley of the Sun: Four Corners are home to the Pima, Maricopa and Yuma tribes. It was believed that the earth induced dreaming. Girls in puberty were guided to a sacred cave, symbolic of the womb of Mother Earth, and had visions that would lead and guide the people.
Bad Spirit Tower: This unusual and unnatural shape in Wyoming induced a legend that would help the Kiowa blend with their new environment on the plains. The legend says that eight children were at play, 7 sisters and a brother. The brother turns into a bear and chases the sisters to a great tree stump. The sisters climb up and the tree stump grows taller. The brother bear scratched the bark but could not reach the sisters who eventually were born safely into the sky as the big dipper.
Earthen Mounds: Where the Mississippi and Missouri converge. Cahokia 900-1300 C.E.- The Earthen mound were sacred man-made mountains where the Indians could honor and communicate with the gods. The sun God was the principal object of veneration and was guided across the sky by his brother, the Chief, each morning at dawn.
Pipe Stone - Southwestern Minnesota - The red clay quarry made of catlinite sandstone is believed to be the blood of all the Native American ancestors and is one of the most sacred spots in North America. Every bowl of every peace pipe is made from the red stone that is in this quarry. It is believed that the blood of the ancestors remains in the earth to nourish the living.
Finger Lakes of Central New York: Mohawk, Sennaca, Kiuga, Onondaga, and Oneida lived in the area. Lake Onandaga marks the spot where the five tribes established the longest peaceful agreement . On the spot where they buried their warring instruments a great White Pine Tree grew. It has five needles representing the five tribes. The Longhouse was constructed of elm bark and governed all the tribes under one roof., the The sacred water fall, close by, speaks to the Indian with the voice of the spirits.
Rock Writing: Nuva Ajunt, Nevada- Hopi Indians were a tribe on the move. They believed that the Creator owned the land and offered to share it with them. He told them to write their history on the rocks because one day another people would conquer them. Over time these people would be gone and the only thing left would be the writing on the rocks to establish the creator as the real owner.
Canyon De Chelley: Navaho Indians, Arizona - This canyon is believed to be the center of the universe. The wind , the light, and the shadows that move through the landscape are the spirits of the ancestors. They inherited this land from the anasazi (ancient ones). The Spirit of Spider Grand Mother stands at the head of the canyon. She wove the web that allowed the "chosen ones" to raise up out of the earth. Wisdom resides with the ancient ones.
Nojajas Butte: Cheyenne Indians of South Dakota- This is the mountain where the people are taught. Sweet Medicine received the sacred arrows here that gave the Cheyenne their powers. Each year a ritual is shared by a grandfather, the father and son who travel across the prairie carrying the sacred Buffalo Robe and Buffalo skull. At the Butte they perform rituals and try and become one with the wind, sky and rocks by fasting until the vision comes. They are seeking a symbolic vision to teach, lead and guide them.

Myth: White Buffalo Calf WomanSioux Legend
The origin of the pipe was as sacred as that of the sacramental leaf that smoldered in the bowl. Sioux legend recounts how White Buffalo Calf Woman brought the pipe to the tribes. Many lifetimes ago, according to the tale, two young hunters looked out from the hilltop where they stood seeking game and saw approaching a beautiful woman in a white buffalo-skin dress. Not only was her apparel a sign of the supernatural, but as the woman neared, the hunters could see that she walked with the slow, stately gait of the spirits and carried a holy bundle on her back. Despite strong taboos protecting spirits from worldly lust, the older man was overcome by desire. As he reached out to touch the woman, a large cloud suddenly covered both of them. When it lifted, the man with impure intentions had become a pile of bones.
Following this demonstration of her powers, the woman sent the remaining hunter home with an order that the chief prepare a large tipi for her. The man did as commanded, and at sunrise the next day, the woman arrived, carrying her bundle in her hands. Unwrapping it, she withdrew the stem of a pipe with her right hand, the bowl with her left. (To this day, the Sioux carry their sacred pipes in this manner.) White Buffalo Calf Woman then held the pipe before the chief, saying: "Behold this and always love it. It is very sacred and you must treat it as such. With this you will send your voices to Wakan Tanka, your father and grandfather." The woman explained that the pipe represented the earth, and all plants and animals upon it. "When you pray with this pipe," she continued, "you pray for and with everything."
White Buffalo Calf Woman gave the Sioux seven rites central to their religion, then showed them how to handle the pipe, pointing at the sky and the earth and toward the four winds. Then she wrapped the object in her bundle and gave it to the elderly chief. As she departed across the prairie, she turned into a white buffalo calf and disappeared over the horizon.

The White Buffalo Calf Woman
The White Buffalo Calf Woman gave the Sioux seven major rituals integrated around the symbolism of the pipe.
1. Sweat Lodge (for purification)
2. The Vision Quest (boys puberty and others seeking visions)
3. Ghost-keeping lodge (a vigil for departed relatives)
4. Ritual to make strangers relatives ( a sort of "blood brother" rite)
5. Girl's puberty rite
6. A religious Ball Game
7. Sun Dance.

· Stored by the tribal leaders (Arvol Looking Horse) in South Dakota. Stored with stem and bowl apart. Bowl is held with left hand, stem with right.
· It's stem is the lower leg of a buffalo calf. Embellished with three eagle feathers, bird skins, and four small scalps.
· Bowls were made from soapstone, called catlinite which is red. Soapstone is waterlogged underground and is easily worked after mining. It then dries hard.
Legend has it that a huge flood once deluged ancient people living on the prairie, crushing them into the earth. Their flesh and bones turned into a pool of blood that, after time, hardened into the sacred, crimson stone from which Indians carved their pipe bowls.
· Some Sioux say that the bundle that the pipe is wrapped in will be opened only when the time is ripe for change, when an atmosphere of brotherhood and peace returns to the world.
Before smoking the pipe you must point it to sky and earth and then the four winds. The bowl is made of catlinite soapstone.The stem is usually wood or reed, painted and carved, beaded and feathered.





 Updated Monday, November 1, 2004 at 8:00:36 PM by Susan Cafarelli Burke -
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